How do legends move? Pindar, the greatest ancient poet used to write about sports champions. Where is the poetry that builts the legends of today? It maybe dwells in our eyes ready to be discovered.I had chosen scenes with soccer legends and a friend told me to compare it with contemporary poets.The soccer show can be paralleled with language show found in poetry. (n.1975 in Braila (Romania).He studied History of Religions and Culture and worked as a journalist.
Between 2005 and 2007 he was in charge with a new poetry magazine, Versus-Verso. Since 2006 he has been Editor en chief for Cuvantul, magazine but for the end of 2008 he left the Romanian cultural press.Performs poetry in different places in Bucharest since 1996.He read poetry or developed poetry projects in Paris, Rome, Prague, Chishinev, New York, Bratislava and Berlin. His first collection of poetry was “Fetish” in 2001, awarded ex aequo the Mihai Eminescu National Award for first book of Poetry. In 2005 he published “Romanian bodies” a second book of poetry.His poems were selected for No Longer Poetry- New Romanian Poetry, an anthology published in UK. In 2005 he launched a series of weekly literary meetings that still go on.
He changed his initial Poetics of the quotidian format in, a weekly event aimed to promote a relational aproach to poetry in Bucharest in 2010.note:All rights for the selected texts and translations belong to authors and translators as mentioned for eacd post. archives. recently. directions. Your commentsonAjit Kumar Das onononon.
By© all rights reserved. Printer friendly version.In this essay I examine the role of poetry in the production of a transnational memory of the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Centre. Although 9/11 was a transnational event, the commemorative culture has largely been shaped within a nationalist frame, which remembers the traumatic event in terms of national identity. The attack on the World Trade Centre in Manhattan had a global reach, however, and the collective memory of the event cannot be contained within national borders. As Michael Rothberg observes: ‘In its preconditions, in its mass media unfolding, and in its deadly repercussions, September 11 was a global event. It demands a literature that takes risks, speaks in multiple tongues, and dares to move beyond nearsightedness’ (‘Seeing Terror, Feeling Art’ ch. Fallout 4 free download. Irish poet Seamus Heaney’s contribution to the literature of 9/11, ‘Anything Can Happen’, foregrounds the intersecting transnational and transhistorical dimensions of 9/11 memory.
Drawing on concepts and approaches from transnational memory studies, I aim to identity the poem’s contribution to a transnational memory culture of 9/11. This analysis supports my broader argument that poetry opens up new perspectives on an event that has most often been commemorated within a national frame.As one of the earliest literary commemorative forms, poetry is a transcultural form particularly well suited to transnational circulation.
Generations of poets have borrowed and adapted poetic forms, structures, figures and preoccupations from earlier cultures and traditions. For instance, in ‘Anything Can Happen’, first published as ‘Horace and the Thunder’ in The Irish Times on 17 November 2001, Heaney translates and adapts a Horatian ode. This literary translation by an internationally recognised poet has been further translated and adapted. It has been republished in a range of periodicals, translated into 23 languages for an Amnesty International publication, and adapted as a piece of choral music by Arab-American composer Mohammed Fairouz. The translation of a Latin ode and the later appropriations of the text, the Amnesty translations in 2004 and the musical adaptation, disrupt the national memory frame that has circumscribed 9/11. Moreover, in each of the above instances, multiple social scales have shaped the remediation and reframing of ‘Anything Can Happen’, making its remediation an apposite example of how poetry oscillates between shifting scales of memory. Through analysis of such examples, I aim to show that literary translations can be an important mnemonic device for remediating memory.A number of recent approaches to memory studies have examined the complex relationship between national and transnational frames of memory.
Chiara de Cesari and Ann Rigney’s idea of ‘scales of memory’ presents memory as ‘a dynamic operating at multiple, interlocking scales and involving conduits, intersections, circuits and articulations’ (6). This approach recognises the significance of national frames of memory, but also that different types of memory production can both ‘reinforce and transcend them’ (4). ‘Anything Can Happen’ illustrates the ‘interlocking scales’ of memory by travelling across national, temporal and linguistic boundaries. Moreover, the reception of the poem has occurred on multiple scales: the immediate repercussions of this poem were evident in its local and national reception, while the long term reverberations have had global implications.
De Cesari and Rigney observe that the past can be understood ‘within shifting social frames operating at different scales and across different territories’ (6). Informed by this analysis of interlocking scales of memory, I argue that ‘Anything Can Happen’ provides new possibilities for interpreting the memory of 9/11. To that end, I consider the adaptation and circulation of the text in a transnational literary sphere. But first, it is worth considering the political and rhetorical context that shaped the national memory of 9/11.The Poetry of 9/11The national collective memory of 9/11 has been shaped by political speech and mass media representation, and tended to shut out non-nationalistic perspectives. From the beginning, the military actions that followed were framed in terms of oppositions between good and evil, Christianity and Islam. For example, in his address to the nation on 20 September 2001, George W.
Bush set the agenda for public discourse: ‘They hate our freedoms’ (‘President Bush Addresses the Nation’). In 9/11: The Culture of Commemoration, David Simpson outlines the ways in which the commemoration of this event was used to serve a political agenda: the forms of commemoration have been correspondingly urgent and perhaps untimely, hurried along and even hijacked by the tide of secondary events whose connections with 9/11 are to say the least open to dispute. In less than two years we went from the fall of the Twin Towers and the attack on the Pentagon to the invasion of Iraq, a process marked by propagandist compression and manufactured consent so audacious as to seem unbelievable, except that it happened. (4)Simpson’s discussion of the link between public discourse and military retaliation highlights the ‘nearsightedness’ that Rothberg warns we must move beyond.
Identifying the compressed nature of political rhetoric helps to clarify the danger in oversimplifying complex issues in public discourse. The connection between the commemoration of 9/11 and the subsequent military action shows how political discourse serves a national agenda, but also how this form of memory production contributes little to an understanding of the global repercussions of retaliation.While poetry is also a compressed form of response, it is one that invites a broader range of engagements than political speech and mainstream journalism. Poems are not confined by national borders and can become what Ann Rigney describes as a ‘portable monuments’. As ‘artifacts’, she observes, literary texts have a durability that makes them appropriate for memory, but as as such they are not anchored to a particular site and can be ‘recycled’ in different places and times (Rigney 383).
The brevity of the form lends itself to circulation. In the days after 9/11 in New York poetry became a popular medium for the expression of grief. On 1 October 2001 Dinitia Smith wrote in The New York Times:In the weeks since the terrorist attacks, people have been consoling themselves—and one another—with poetry in an almost unprecedented way.
Almost immediately after the event, improvised memorials often conceived around poems sprang up all over the city, in store windows, at bus stops, in Washington Square Park, Brooklyn Heights and elsewhere. (‘In Shelley or Auden’)Smith notes that poetry was being widely circulated through email networks.
She identifies particular poems as having a resonance for the moment: Shelley’s ‘Ozymandias’, Auden’s ‘September 1, 1939’ and Seamus Heaney’s choral ode from The Cure at Troy. The popularity of these poems highlights the transcultural nature of poetry, a genre that has always borrowed from other cultural traditions.
In A Transnational Poetics Jahan Ramazani explains that ‘because poetry is such a long-memoried form, it is enmeshed—even when stridently nationalist in ideology—by a complexly cross-national weave in its rhythms and tropes, stanza patterns and generic adaptations’ (13). This ‘enmeshment’ can be seen in Shelley’s use of the sonnet form and the symbolism of an Ancient Egyptian relic to reflect on the transience of human power, and in Heaney’s use of the choral mode from Greek tragedy to represent the challenges of working toward reconciliation after violent conflict. The appropriation of these texts by grieving New Yorkers further highlights the ease with which poetry can travel across time and space, a process Ramazani describes as ‘geopoetic oscillation’ (58).Immediately after 9/11, there was a demand for well-known American poets to produce new work in response to the attack. The resulting poetry represents a different form of poetic transnationalism. American poets tended to take a broader view of the geopolitical and historical context than was evident in mainstream media. Commenting on the three anthologies of 9/11 poetry by American poets that were published in 2002, Laurence Goldstein observes that the immediate challenge for poets was to ‘recover a form’ that would ‘refresh the reader’s understanding of the radically reconfigured (dis)continuity of past and present’, a form that he argues was ‘most often found in literary and religious traditions’ (54). Jeffrey Gray reports that in a wide range of works by American poets the ‘overwhelming response was guilt’, something he felt counter-balanced the outrage being expressed in the media (ch.
The 9/11 works of Galway Kinnell and Amiri Baraka represent this pattern. In ‘When the Towers Fell’, Kinnell draws upon the violent history of the twentieth century to find ‘not a comparison but a corollary’ (line 76) for the 9/11 attacks: the lynching of African Americans in the South, the holocaust, ‘atomic blasts wiping cities off the earth, firebombings the same, / death marches, starvations, assassinations, disappearances, / entire countries turned into rubble, minefields, mass graves’ (86-8).
Likewise, Amiri Baraka’s ‘Somebody Blew Up America’ draws on a range of atrocities, encompassing the ‘trail of tears’, British colonisation, the Armenian genocide, apartheid and the assassinations of Dr King and the Kennedys. As Gray observes, Baraka presents September 11 as ‘part of a much greater, many layered continuum’ rather than as a singular event (ch. What is common to some of this poetry, then, is the tendency to understand a ‘national’ tragedy by placing it in the broader context of global atrocities.While the above examples look to past atrocities, by contrast Suheir Hammad’s ‘first writing since’ moves across and beyond and looks forward in time rather than backward. As an American of Palestinian descent she worried about how 9/11 would impact on Muslims, recalling that her first response was ‘please god, after the second plane, please don’t let it be anyone / who looks like my brothers’ (15-16). As she states: ‘if there are any people on earth who understand how new york is / feeling right now, they are in the west bank and the gaza strip’ (93-9). Hammad originally emailed the poem to 50 friends, who then circulated it through their email networks (Hopkinson).
Michael Rothberg first encountered the text on the listserv Professors for Peace, but notes that within months of the attack it could be found on over 150 websites. He describes Hammad’s poem as ‘a multi-layered work of mourning and an ethico-political call for justice’ (‘“There is No Poetry in This”’ sec.
As these cases demonstrate, the 9/11 work of American poets was not confined by national borders or boundaries as it circulated through traditional literary and evolving digital networks.The demand for 9/11 poetry was not confined to the United States; there was a corresponding demand for prominent international writers to commemorate the 9/11 attack. Seamus Heaney’s response can be seen, in part, as the articulation of his responsibility as a Nobel Laureate, a role that elevates and consecrates the recipient and ensures a global audience. The Nobel Prize in Literature is often awarded to writers who represent local or national literary communities, but the conferral of the prize grants a global prestige. The Nobel has long been understood as a quasi-humanitarian award, and its criteria specify works that have ‘conferred the greatest good upon mankind’ and point in an ‘ideal direction’ (English ch. Rebecca Braun explains that ‘the recipient experiences an overnight transformation in both their public standing and personal circumstances’ (321).
This transformation brings with it the expectation to speak on matters of global significance. Having received the Prize in 1995, Heaney was now culturally authorised to speak about 9/11.After 9/11 Heaney’s fellow Nobel Laureates Wislawa Szymborska and Toni Morrison published new poems that grapple with the challenges of representing atrocity. As Nobel Laureates, they were endowed with the authority to write for a global audience and to shape the collective transnational memory of 9/11.
Toni Morrison’s poetic response, ‘The Dead of September 11’, dated September 13, 2001, identifies the victims as ‘those children of ancestors born in every continent / on the planet: Asia, Europe, Africa, the Americas;’ (4-5). The last half of the poem is addressed directly to these victims:To speak to you, the dead of September 11, I must not claimfalse intimacy or summon an overheated heart glazedjust in time for a camera. I must be steady and I must be clear,knowing all the time that I have nothing to say—no wordsstronger than the steel that pressed you into itself; no scriptureolder or more elegant than the ancient atoms youhave become.
Suheir Hammad Poems
(23-9)Morrison’s poem conveys wariness that her public profile might be used to stake a claim on the event, knowing all the while that there are ‘no words / stronger than the steel that pressed you into itself’. The unwillingness to ‘claim false intimacy’ or ‘summon an overheated heart glazed / just in time for camera’ reveals the difficulty of being in a position where some form of public response is expected. This reticence is echoed in Szymborska’s ‘Photograph from September 11’, which describes the press photographs of bodies falling from the Twin Towers: ‘The photograph halted them in life, / and now keeps them / above the earth toward the earth’ (3-6). In the final stanza she concludes:I can do only two things for them—describe this flightand not add a last line (16-18).The poem seeks to freeze the victims in time ‘still within the air’s reach’ and the refusal to add a last line amounts to a refusal to represent the atrocity of inevitable outcome.‘Anything Can Happen’: Heaney’s Transcultural Adaptation of Ode 1.34Heaney avoids ‘false intimacy’ by mediating the events of 9/11 through a Horatian ode. The adaptation of a canonical text draws out the transnational by foregrounding the usually invisible process of translation and giving a text from a ‘dead’ language a new transcultural and transnational life. By 2001, when ‘Horace and the Thunder’ was first published, adaptation and translation had become central to Heaney’s work.
His use of Horace in ‘Anything Can Happen’ has parallels to the way that Horace had raided the metres and forms and themes of earlier Greek poets to represent Augustan Rome. In an introduction to a new translation of the odes, Kaimowitz writes of Horace ‘making his connection with earlier literary traditions at the same time as he is staking out new literary territory for himself’ (xxiii). The adaptation of work from another literary tradition exemplifies the process Astrid Erll describes in her analysis of the ‘literary afterlives’ of texts: over decades and centuries they are ‘received, discussed, used, canonized, forgotten, censored, and re-used’ (‘Traumatic Pasts’ 3).‘Anything Can Happen’ is a representation of the violence of the planes striking the Twin Towers. The poem registers the shock of a sudden attack ‘across a clear blue sky’ and represents the power imbalance in global politics.
Suheir Hammad Poems In Poetry Magazine Journal Pdf Download
Heaney shifts the focus of the original text by deleting the first stanza of Horace’s ode, one that is generally agreed to describe a religious conversion (Zumwalt 436). The second stanza of Horace 1.34 becomes the first stanza of Heaney’s translation. It opens with the metaphor of Jupiter’s ‘thunder cart’ shaking the earth, the underworld and the ‘Atlantic shore itself’ (‘Anything Can Happen’ 4-7). The enjambment of the lines across the second and third stanzas suggests a causal chain:Anything can happen, the tallest towersBe overturned, those in high places daunted,Those overlooked regarded (8-10).The implication is that toppling ‘the tallest towers’ can ‘daunt’ those in high places and cause them to ‘regard’ the ‘overlooked’, perhaps for the first time. In this context ‘those overlooked’ refers to the perpetrators of the attack. The third stanza foreshadows the cycle of revenge and retaliation that was to follow through the graphic imagery of fortune as a bird of prey that can tear the crest from the ‘daunted’ and give it—‘bleeding’—to another: Stropped-beak FortuneSwoops, making the air gasp, tearing the crest off oneSetting it down bleeding on the next. (10-12)The personification of the natural elements, ‘making the air gasp’, reinforces the shock of the sudden attack.
The metaphor of fortune as a bird of prey conveys the brutality of historical change, but also allows for the swift reversal of fortunes. In ‘Horace and the Thunder’ the lines were rendered: ‘tearing off / Crests for sport, letting them drop wherever’. The minor change in ‘Anything Can Happen’ transforms the way the violence is represented.
Instead of arbitrary killing for ‘sport’, with no regard for the aftermath, Fortune deliberately places the ‘bleeding’ crest on the next bird of prey. Zumwalt observes that in Horace’s poetry Fortuna is often associated with uncertainty in political events and that in Horace’s ode the final statement is ‘an observation that high political power is subject to the whims of Fortune’ (464).In his adaptation Heaney took ‘the liberty’ of adding a final stanza that modifies the view of Fortune presented in the third stanza ( Anything Can Happen 19).
The stanza describes an event that has shaken the earth to its very foundations, using the geological impact as a metaphor for the political consequences. The imagery in the final stanza shows that repercussions of 9/11 are ongoing:Ground gives. The heavens’ weightLifts up off Atlas like a kettle lid,Capstones shift, nothing resettles right.Telluric ash and fire-spores boil away (13-16).This rending of heaven and earth has resulted in everything resettling slightly off kilter.
In the earlier version of the poem the final line is ‘Smoke furl and boiling ashes darken day’, a metaphorical description of the ash cloud that blanketed New York in the days and weeks following the attack on the Twin Towers (‘Horace and the Thunder’). In later versions Heaney made the decision to change this to ‘Telluric ash and fire spores boil away’. This change shows that even after the ‘smoke furl’ has cleared there is still anger boiling beneath the surface. While Horace’s ode ends with the image of rapacious fortune, Heaney’s poem ends with the long-term consequences of these shifts of fortune.A Horatian ode is an apt choice for a ‘public’ poem as it highlights the intersection of the deep past and the present. Temporality can be understood as another type of scale, one that is dynamic and non-linear.
Simpson argues that decisions about public commemorative monuments are ‘often and ideally the products of slow time’ (2). He describes how the attacks have been presented as ‘an interruption of the deep rhythms of cultural time, a cataclysm simply erasing what was there rather than evolving from anything already in place’ (4).
Heaney disrupts this narrative of exceptionality by adapting an ode by Horace, who himself lived through a period of transition. Paul Allen Miller describes Horace’s odes as ‘poems of transition.
Caught between the worlds of the republic and the empire, they negotiate a middle path between public engagement and private withdrawal’ (365). This identification of the unpredictability of historical change makes Horace an apposite choice for Heaney, writing at another moment of transition. Gray argues that ‘much of poetry’s power resides precisely in its atemporal slippage’ and that it is most powerful ‘when it least imitates the reportorial illusion of access to prior realities’ (ch.
The adaptation of a Horatian ode effects this type of slippage by placing the reader at a distance from the incendiary rhetoric of retaliation.Remediating the Memory of 9/11: The Circulation of ‘Anything Can Happen’Heaney has made ‘Anything Can Happen’ available to a broader readership by extending the life of what began as an occasional poem. The publication history demonstrates how the poem was able to ‘travel’ across national boundaries by reappearing in British and American publications with global readerships.
After its first appearance in The Irish Times in 2001, ‘Anything Can Happen’ was revised and reprinted in the Times Literary Supplement, Harpers Magazine and Irish Pages in 2002 and collected in District and Circle (2006). In Irish Pages it was accompanied by ‘Reality and Justice’, an essay describing Heaney’s response to the 9/11 attacks. In 2004 Amnesty International published a series of translations of ‘Anything Can Happen’ with an introductory essay by Heaney. Because he has chosen to commemorate 9/11 with an adaptation of a classical ode, Heaney is writing for an implied reader who understands the cultural references, and these essays serve to ‘translate’ the translation for the reader who does not. In Adaptation and Appropriation, Julie Sanders observes that making the relationship with the source text explicit ‘depends upon a complex invocation of ideas of similarity and difference’ and ‘can only be mobilized by a reader or spectator alert to the intertextual relationship’ (21).
For the reader who may not be alert to these intertextual links, Heaney’s essays on the adaptation provide a framework for reading the poem.The explanatory essays have been used to shape the readers’ response not just to the poem, but also to the 9/11 attacks. Heaney makes specific reference to the international military campaign that was the outcome of the war on terror and warns of the folly of entering a cycle of retaliation.